For concrete structures in chloride-containing environments, the ingress of chlorides can take place in different ways. Through uncracked concrete, the ingress mainly takes place by capillary absorption and diffusion. When a relatively dry concrete is
ِِِِِAggregate particles of a given size pack so as to form voids that can be penetrated only if the next smaller size of particles is sufficiently small, that is, there is no particle interference. This
Concrete Additives Concrete additives are fine materials which are generally added to concrete in significant proportions (around 5–20 %). They are used to improve or obtain specific fresh and/or hardened concrete properties. European Standards lists
In a constantly evolving society there stems a need to develop and improve the current infrastructure. In order to build new infrastructure, building materials such as concrete will be needed. The raw materials needed for
Self-compacting Concrete: Fresh Properties Self-compacting concrete has specific fresh state properties which conventional concrete does not have. Fresh concrete properties of SCC are obviously related to its property of self-compactability. Self-compactability in mechanism terms is
Most standards have laid down the acceptance criteria of quality concrete. In all the cases, the 28-days compressive strength shall alone be the criterion for acceptance or rejection of the concrete. 7 days compressive strength of
Nowadays concrete is being used for various purposes to make it suitable in different conditions. In these conditions ordinary concrete may fail to exhibit the required quality performance such as durability, strength, workability and finishing quality of concrete.
Reinforcing Steel Because in prestressed concrete structures the role of primary reinforcement has largely been replaced by prestressing steel, an unfortunate tendency has been to denigrate the importance of supplementary conventional reinforcing. Conventional reinforcement fulfills