Type of Loads Acting on Structures

Structural Loads:


A load is a force which applies to a structure tending to produce deformations, stresses or displacements in the structure and it must withstand these types of generated actions.


Types of Loads:


1- Dead Loads: Vertical loads that are fixed in position and are produced by the weight of the elements of the structure or the whole structure with all its permanent components.


Examples are: own weight of structural member and super imposed loads (e.g. walls and flooring cover)


2- Live Loads: consist mainly of occupancy loads (e.g. people and furniture) in buildings and traffic loads on bridges. —They may be either fully or partially in place or not present at all, and may also change in location.
Dead and live loads


3- Wind Loads: are the positive or negative pressures exerted on a building when it obstructs the flow of moving air. Wind loads generally act perpendicular the surface of the structure. Value of load varies depending on the geographic location of the building and its height.
Wind loads


4- Seismic Loads: are the inertial forces that act on the structure due to earthquake-induced ground motions.
Seismic loads


5- Snow Loads: the amount of snow load on a roof structure is dependent on a variety of factors:
• Roof geometry,
• Size of the structure,
• Insulation of the structure,
• Wind frequency,
• Snow duration,
• Geographical location of the structure.
Snow loads


6- Lateral Soil and Hydro-static Loads:


7- Thermal and Settlement Loads:

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