In this article, the damage caused by freezing and thawing cycles to concrete is described. Freezing-thawing damage results from the fact that when water freezes to ice, it expands by about 9 percent. When the water in
The concept of water-to-cement ratio (w/c) of concrete is a universally fundamental concept and is considered as the oldest law in the concrete technology. The water/cement ratio influences the durability properties of concrete in a
Corrosion of steel in concrete may cause structural damage and early failure of Reinforced Concrete structures. Besides the volume increase and cover spalling due to corrosion (Figure 1), it negatively influences, the flexural, shear, and
In 1982, Tuutti proposed that deterioration due to steel reinforcement corrosion can be represented by a two stage model (Figure 1). The first stage is associated with corrosion initiation, in which detrimental substances (such as
In general, permeability is defined as “the property that controls the rate of flow of a fluid into the porous solid”. Regarding concrete, the difficulty of the migration of the liquid and gas through the concrete
Concrete structures are designed to achieve a certain service life. For instance, bridges are designed to achieve a 100 – 120 years of service. However, concrete life can be compromised or ended before the specified life.