Causes of Formwork Failures

Causes of Formwork Failures

 Causes of Formwork Failures Failure of formwork in general results from various causes: excessive loads, premature removal of forms or shores, inadequacies related to formwork, and human error on the job, whether due to indifference, haste, or lack of knowledge. Hadipnono and Wang (1986) studied the causes of 85 major falsework failures that have been documented …

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Formwork Materials

Formwork

Formwork materials can be classified as: 1. Timber 2. Metals 3. Plastics 1.Timber a. Lumber: Lumber is commonly available material and has excellent strength, weight and cost factor. Lumber is classified as: • Boards: 1 to 1.5 inches thick, 2 or more inches width • Dimensions: 2 to 4 inch thick, any width. • Timbers: …

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Information for Ordering Concrete

Concrete pump

Information for Ordering Concrete When ordering pre-mixed concrete, you will need to tell the supplier: Name and address for delivery The use of the concrete (i.e. driveway, housing slab, commercial) The amount you need in cubic metres The Class of the concrete. There are two classes that concrete can be supplied as: Normal Class and Special …

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How to Select the Construction Plant?

construction plant

Selection of the Construction Plant The selection of plant is usually straightforward but the following points are relevant.  1- Cost a- Hire rate Take all factors into account if you are offered alternatives. What are the extras to the basic rate? For operated plant, these can include overtime, bonus and subsistence. Are fuel and lubricants included …

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Loads on Falsework and Formwork

Formwork

Loads on Falsework and Formwork Falsework and formwork shall be designed to carry all the loads that they will be subjected to till the time when the permanent structure they support gains sufficient strength to be self-supporting. Examples of these loads are dead loads (e.g. fresh concrete^, scaffolds, forms, etc.), live loads (e.g. workmen, equipment, …

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Lumber Formwork

Formwork

Lumber Formwork The general term lumber refers to both “Dimension lumber” and “Timber”. Dimension lumber means a piece of lumber 38 to 102 mm inclusive in smaller dimension. Timber means a piece of lumber 114 mm or more in smaller dimension. Almost all formwork, regardless of its type, uses some wood. Although the wood species, grades and …

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Desirable Properties of Plaster

plastering

Desirable Properties of Plaster 1-Introduction Portland cement plaster must have certain properties in both the fresh and hardened state to allow proper application and long-term service. A properly mixed plaster can be either hand or machine applied. Freshly mixed plaster should have good adhesion and cohesion characteristics and should remain workable long enough to obtain …

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Portland Cement Plaster Materials

plastering

1-Introduction Materials should comply with building codes and job specifications. Packaged materials should be labeled properly, indicating the manufacturer, brand name, and recommendations for use. Packaged materials that might be damaged by moisture should be protected. Proprietary or specialty plaster should be mixed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. 2-Cements The cement may consist of …

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