It is known that in RC construction, simplicity and repetitiveness are the keys to economy. For beam and girder framing schemes with one way slabs, the next points should be taken into account: 1. For one-way load transfer
Corrosion of steel in concrete may cause structural damage and early failure of Reinforced Concrete structures. Besides the volume increase and cover spalling due to corrosion (Figure 1), it negatively influences, the flexural, shear, and
In 1982, Tuutti proposed that deterioration due to steel reinforcement corrosion can be represented by a two stage model (Figure 1). The first stage is associated with corrosion initiation, in which detrimental substances (such as
In general, permeability is defined as “the property that controls the rate of flow of a fluid into the porous solid”. Regarding concrete, the difficulty of the migration of the liquid and gas through the concrete
The primary objectives of a building code are to make sure that new construction and renovated buildings provide a minimum level of safety, health, and welfare to the occupants and the public. These objectives are
Concrete structures are designed to achieve a certain service life. For instance, bridges are designed to achieve a 100 – 120 years of service. However, concrete life can be compromised or ended before the specified life.
The word “cement” itself is a general word means “a glue” while “portland cement” is a more specific type of glue that is used in the civil engineering construction. The most important feature of the portland
In concrete construction, forms are extremely important as they mold the concrete to the required size and shape. When it comes to construction, forms have to be designed properly to provide safe support to loads