Flow Table Test

Flow table test

Flow Table Test This test was covered by BS 1881 : 105 : 1984. The test is appropriate for concrete of high and very high workability, including flowing concrete which would exhibit a collapse slump. The apparatus consists essentially of a wooden board covered by a steel plate with a total mass of 16 kg. …

Read More

Cement Manufacturing Process

cement manufacture process

Cement Manufacturing Process History of Cement: Cement is a material which is highly compatible to the earth’s eco-system and most adaptable to sustainable development. Cement is a fine powder which sets after a few hours when mixed with water, and then hardens into a solid, strong material. Cement is mainly used to bind fine sand …

Read More

Mechanisms of Concrete Confinement

Mechanisms of Concrete Confinement

Mechanisms of Concrete Confinement Concrete under uniaxial compression tends to expand laterally and the longitudinal strains generated by such loading give rise to transverse tensile strains. which cause vertical cracking and failure in concrete. Lateral pressure that confines the concrete counteracts the lateral expansion, and results in a significant increase in ductility dong with the …

Read More

Chloride Ingress into Concrete

For concrete structures in chloride-containing environments, the ingress of chlorides can take place in different ways. Through uncracked concrete, the ingress mainly takes place by capillary absorption and diffusion. When a relatively dry concrete is exposed to saltwater, the concrete may suck the saltwater relatively fast, and intermittent wetting and drying may successively accumulate high …

Read More

Gap-graded Aggregate

ِِِِِAggregate particles of a given size pack so as to form voids that can be penetrated only if the next smaller size of particles is sufficiently small, that is, there is no particle interference. This means that there must be a minimum difference between the sizes of any two adjacent particle fractions. In other words, …

Read More

Concrete Additives

concrete admixtures

Concrete Additives Concrete additives are fine materials which are generally added to concrete in significant proportions (around 5–20 %). They are used to improve or obtain specific fresh and/or hardened concrete properties. European Standards lists 2 types of inorganic concrete additive: Type I Virtually inactive materials such as lime fillers, quartz dust and colour pigments. …

Read More

Loads on Falsework and Formwork

Formwork

Loads on Falsework and Formwork Falsework and formwork shall be designed to carry all the loads that they will be subjected to till the time when the permanent structure they support gains sufficient strength to be self-supporting. Examples of these loads are dead loads (e.g. fresh concrete^, scaffolds, forms, etc.), live loads (e.g. workmen, equipment, …

Read More