Concrete in Compression (ACI 318)

Concrete in Compression It is generally accepted that the behavior of a reinforced concrete member under load depends on the stress–strain relationship of the materials, as well as the type of stress to which it is subjected. With concrete used principally in compression, the compressive stress–strain curve is of primary interest. The compressive strength of concrete …

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Structural Design and Limit States

limit state design

Structural Design and Limit States Aims and methods of design Codes state that the aim of design is the achievement of an acceptable probability that the structure will perform satisfactorily during its life. It must carry the loads safely, not deform excessively and have adequate durability and resistance to effects of misuse and fire. Codes recognize …

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Mechanisms of Concrete Confinement

Mechanisms of Concrete Confinement

Mechanisms of Concrete Confinement Concrete under uniaxial compression tends to expand laterally and the longitudinal strains generated by such loading give rise to transverse tensile strains. which cause vertical cracking and failure in concrete. Lateral pressure that confines the concrete counteracts the lateral expansion, and results in a significant increase in ductility dong with the …

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Non-Industrial Floors: Types, Loading, Joint and crack requirements

Non-Industrial Floors This category includes all floors except warehouse and factory floors. Though non-industrial floors get little attention, they are actually far more numerous than their industrial counterparts. Non-industrial floors are usually easier to design and build than industrial floors, for three reasons: First, they generally support very light loads. Second, few of these floors are …

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Variation of Wind Velocity with Height

Variation of Wind Velocity with Height

In this article named “Variation of Wind Velocity with Height”, how wind speed change as a function of structure height is discussed. The viscosity of air reduces its velocity adjacent to the earth’s surface to almost zero, as shown in Figure 1. A retarding effect occurs in the wind layers near the ground, and these …

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Shear Walls

Shear Walls

Definition of Shear Wall: Shear walls are the vertical structural element which resist the horizontal forces acting on a building structure. Shear wall can also be defined as a wall which are reinforced & made of braced panels to carry lateral forces. The thickness of the shear wall for regular buildings can be generally in the range of 150 …

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Effect of Elevated Temperature on Concrete Strength

effect of fire on concrete

Effect of Elevated Temperature on Concrete Strength Concrete structures could be exposed to high temperatures due to different reasons, mainly during exposure to fire; another one could be when the structure or its elements are a part of industrial installations. At high temperatures, Portland cement concretes undergo important changes in their properties, due to formation …

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