Surface Scaling and Spalling of Concrete

concrete deterioration

In this article, two of the visual defects that might appear on concrete are discussed: Surface Scaling and Spalling of concrete. Surface Scaling of Concrete Scaling is a form of disintegration and is due in most part to freeze–thaw reactions which cause the concrete to flake or peel off at the exposed surface. Scaling is indicative of …

Read More

Effect of Elevated Temperature on Concrete Strength

effect of fire on concrete

Effect of Elevated Temperature on Concrete Strength Concrete structures could be exposed to high temperatures due to different reasons, mainly during exposure to fire; another one could be when the structure or its elements are a part of industrial installations. At high temperatures, Portland cement concretes undergo important changes in their properties, due to formation …

Read More

Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP):Introduction-Properties

Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP):Introduction-Properties Concrete structures regardless of their purpose are disintegrating. A common link for this breakdown is that steel reinforcement is being used to strengthen the flexural capacity of the structures. Reinforcing steel will corrode when contact is made with humid or salty environments. When steel corrodes, it is expanding which creates tensile …

Read More

Freezing and Thawing Damage to Concrete

In this article, the damage caused by freezing and thawing cycles to concrete is described. Freezing-thawing damage results from the fact that when water freezes to ice, it expands by about 9 percent. When the water in concrete freezes it produces pressure in the pores of the concrete. If the developed pressure exceeds the tensile strength of …

Read More

Effect of Water-to-cement Ratio on Concrete

concrete water

The concept of water-to-cement ratio (w/c) of concrete is a universally fundamental concept and is considered as the oldest law in the concrete technology. The water/cement ratio influences the durability properties of concrete in a significant way. Decreasing the w/c value would lead to a reduction in concrete porosity and accordingly, lower permeability and higher …

Read More

Structural Damage Caused By Reinforcement Corrosion

Corrosion of steel in concrete may cause structural damage and early failure of Reinforced Concrete structures. Besides the volume increase and cover spalling due to corrosion (Figure 1), it negatively influences, the flexural, shear, and bond strength of the corroded element. Vidal and his colleagues studied the long-term corrosion process of reinforced concrete beams stored in …

Read More

Corrosion Damage Stages During Service Life

In 1982, Tuutti proposed that deterioration due to steel reinforcement corrosion can be represented by a two stage model (Figure 1). The first stage is associated with corrosion initiation, in which detrimental substances (such as chlorides) penetrate through concrete until reaching steel surface in sufficient quantity to initiate corrosion (depassivation). The length of this stage, …

Read More

Permeability of Concrete

In general, permeability is defined as “the property that controls the rate of flow of a fluid into the porous solid”. Regarding concrete, the difficulty of the migration of the liquid and gas through the concrete is known as the permeability of the concrete. The durability of concrete (more about durability here) is mainly dependent on …

Read More