Carbonation and Corrosion

Carbonation and Corrosion

Carbonation is the term used to describe the effect of carbon dioxide on a material. The phenomenon rarely leads to structural problems but carbonation-induced corrosion can lead to unsightly spalling on structures. The repair costs, for example to multi-storey office development façades, can be considerable. Carbonation of cementitious materials results in a lowering of the …

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Concrete Aggregates: Effects and Classification

concrete aggregate

Aggregates: Effects and Classification Aggregates constitute a skeleton of concrete. Approximately three-quarters of the volume of conventional concrete is occupied by aggregate. It is inevitable that a constituent occupying such a large percentage of the mass should contribute important properties to both the fresh and hardened product. Aggregate is usually viewed as an inert dispersion …

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Rodded Unit Weight of Coarse Aggregates Test (ASTM C29)

Rodded Unit Weight of Coarse Aggregates PURPOSE Determination of the unit weight of coarse aggregates in a compacted condition. This test method is applicable to aggregates not exceeding 15 cm in nominal size. The unit weight so determined is necessary for the design of a concrete mixture by the absolute value methodز EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS …

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Concrete in Compression (ACI 318)

Concrete in Compression It is generally accepted that the behavior of a reinforced concrete member under load depends on the stress–strain relationship of the materials, as well as the type of stress to which it is subjected. With concrete used principally in compression, the compressive stress–strain curve is of primary interest. The compressive strength of concrete …

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Compacting Factor Test

Compacting Factor Test

There is no generally accepted method of directly measuring the amount of work necessary to achieve full compaction, which is a definition of workability. Probably the best test yet available uses the inverse approach: the degree of compaction achieved by a standard amount of work is determined. The work applied includes perforce the work done …

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Flow Table Test

Flow table test

Flow Table Test This test was covered by BS 1881 : 105 : 1984. The test is appropriate for concrete of high and very high workability, including flowing concrete which would exhibit a collapse slump. The apparatus consists essentially of a wooden board covered by a steel plate with a total mass of 16 kg. …

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Cement Manufacturing Process

cement manufacture process

Cement Manufacturing Process History of Cement: Cement is a material which is highly compatible to the earth’s eco-system and most adaptable to sustainable development. Cement is a fine powder which sets after a few hours when mixed with water, and then hardens into a solid, strong material. Cement is mainly used to bind fine sand …

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